History of the Dene Nation

History of the Dene Nation

The Dene Tribes include: Athabaskan – Zuni (A-Z) Tribes of Dene from Alaska to Mexico:

Include Alaska, Canada (All Western Area), Washington, Oregon, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Oklahoma, Colorado, Nevada, Texas, Mexico (North West), Ahtna, Apache, Apachean, Athabaskan, Babine, Beaver, Cahto, Chilcotin, Chilula, Chipewan, Chiricahua, Clatskanie, Coahuilla, Costa, Coquille, Coyotero Apache, Dakelh, Dakubetede, Dena’ina, Dene Sulin, Dogrib, Eyak, Gwich’in, Han, Hare, Hupa, Hoopa, Jicarilla, Kaska, Kiowa, Koyokun, Kwalhioqua, Lipan, Mattole, Mescalero, Na-Dene, Naishan, Navajo, Nongatl, Plains Apache, Shasta, Slavey, Suwal, Tagish, Tahltan, Tamaulipas, Tsetsaut, Tlingit, Tolowa, Tonto, Tututni, Tutchone, Wailaki, Western Apache, Whilkut, Willapa & Zuni.

Language Origins

The Dene language origins have all been solidly linked to the Siberian Ket Tribe located along Yenisei River in Siberia. Tribal Dene root language variations: Na-Dene, N’de, Dine, Dene, Tinde, Inde, N’Dee, (originated from Siberia called Kets / Yeniseians) and early migration waves include all the various tribes listed above.

Read more about the N'Dene Language Family
Read more about Ket People

Morphological Studies

At a symposium in Alaska in 2008, Edward Vajda of Western Washington University summarized ten years of research, based on verbal morphology and reconstructions of the proto-languages, indicating that the Yeniseian and Na-Dené families are related. The summation of Vajda's research was published in June 2010 in The Dene–Yeniseian Connection in the Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska. This 369-page volume, edited by James Kari and Ben Potter, contains papers from the Feb. 26–29, 2008, symposium plus several contributed papers.

Linguistic Analyses

In his 2012 presentation Vajda also addressed non-linguistic evidence, including analyses of Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, which are passed unchanged down the male and female lines, respectively, except for mutations. His most compelling DNA evidence is the Q1 Y-chromosomal haplogroup subclade, which he notes arose 15,000 years ago and is found in nearly all Native Americans and nearly all of the Yeniseian Ket people (90%), but almost nowhere else in Eurasia except for the Selkup people (65%), who have intermarried with the Ket people for centuries.

Read more about the Dené–Yeniseian_languages